The name of the months of the year comes from the ancient Romans. The calendar was established first in the seventh century B.C. by Numa Pompilius. It was revised from a primitive Roman calendar containing ten months. Pompilius added the two months of Januarius and Februarius. Then, in 46 B.C., Julius Caesar changed this calendar and adopted one of 365 and ¼ days. This remained in effect until 1582. After that time, Pope Gregory XIII had eleven days dropped and a new system of leap years worked out.
Now this is the Gregorian calendar, and is the one we continue to use today. Here is some useful information on origin of these months.
We began by looking at the month January. It is the first, and coldest, month of the year. The word came from the name of Roman deity Janus. According to Romans this deity had two faces and he can see in front and back at a time. So in this month we can also look at our past and future. Originally the month contained 29 days. Julius changed it to 31.
Birthstone: Ruby or Rose Quartz
Flower: Carnation or Snowdrop
Color: Black, Dark Blue or Red
This month named from Roman God Februus, the God of the Dead and Purification. This originally had 28 days, Numa changed to 23 or 24 on alternating years. Julius changed to 28 days with an extra day added every 4 years. We now have February with 28 days, and 29 on leap years.
Flower: Violet or Primrose
Color: Violet, Sky Blue or Yellow
March is named after Mars, the Roman God of War. As March is the first month of Spring and also the first month of the Roman year. The ancient Romans later made January first month of the year, and March become the third month on the calender.
Birthstone: Bloodstone and Aquamarine
Flower: Daffodil or Jonquil
Color: White or light Blue
April was the second month in an early Roman canlendar, but become the fourth when the ancient Romans started using January as the first month. It may come from a word meaning 'to open', or it may come from the Goddess Aphrodite, the Goddess of Love and Beauty. April contained 30 days, Numa changed it to 29 days, and Julius returned it to 30.
Flower: Daisy or Sweet Pea
Color: Yellow, Red and Colorless
According to the early Roman calendar, May was the third month. Later, in change in calendar, May become the fifth month. Origionally called Maista for the goddess Maia. She was the goddess of Spring, honour and reverence.
Flower: Lily of the Valley
Color: Yellow, Red, Green
June is the sixth month. On the Roman calendar, it was the fourth month and had only 29 days. Julius gave the month 30 days in 46 B.C. To honour of Juno, the principle goddess of the Roman Pantheon, name of this month came. She was the goddess of marriage and well-being for women.
Birthstone: Pearl, Alexandrite, and Moonstone
Flower: Rose or Honeysuckle
Color: Light Blue, White and Cream
Originally, this month was name Quintiles, meaning fifth as was fifth month in BC. It was the month in which Julius Caesar was born, and named Julius in his honor in 44 BCE, the year of his assassination.
Flower: Larkspur or Water Lily
Color: Green, Russet and Red
August is the eighth month, renamed by the Romans from Sextilis', meaning sixth, Following in the footsteps of Julius, Emperor Augustus Caesar renamed this month in honor of himself, since many of the fortunate events in his life happened during this month. It began with 30 days, Numa changed it to 29, and Julius changed it yet again to 31.
Birthstone: Sardonyx and Peridot
Flower: Gladiolas or Poppy
Color: Orange, Red and Light Green
From the word Septem, meaning 7. It was 7th month of the year but later it become 9th. September started with 30 days, Numa made it 29, and Julius returned it to 30 days.
Flower: Aster or Morning Glory
Color: Brown and Deep Blue
October is the 10th month of the year. In early Roman calendar October was the 8th month. October has had 31 days since the time of the Roman emperor Augustus.
Birthstone: Opal and The Tourmaline
Flower: Calendula or Cosmos
Color: White, Yellow and Varied
In the early Roman calendar, it was the ninth month. The Roman Senate elected to name the eleventh month for Tiberius Caesar, and since Augustus time, it has had only 30 days, then 29, then 31.
Color: Dark Blue, Red and Yellow
It was the tenth month in the early Roman calendar. Now December is the twelfth and last month of the year. Until, 46 B.C., December only had 29 days. But Julius added two days to December, which made it 31 days.
Birthstone: Turquoise and Zircon
Flower: Narcissus or Holly
Color: Indigo, Green, Greenish-Blue